ERP Software Corner
- Category: Basis
- Published on Thursday, 19 July 2007 00:11
- Written by Ricardo Fernandes de Miranda
- Hits: 4436
- Logging on without being authorized
Client 066 usually exists in a SAP system because of EarlyWatch services. Often this client does not have master users. If it is true, anyone can log into the system using the client 066, user SAP*, and password PASS. Enjoy yourself.
- Special copy and paste
Click on the area and press CTRL+Y. It allows you to copy many lines at once and paste them afterwards.
- Long messages on footer
Click on the message and hold the mouse button. After moving the mouse to the left side.
- Direct input logs
The transaction BMV0 (direct input logs) shows all direct input logs.
- Graphics on SAPscript
The program RSTXLDMC can be used to upload graphics (file extension .tif on PC files) into individual standard text.
- Adding icons
The include «ICON» can be easily used in your programs. All icons can be checked through the transaction ICON. Sequences of characters begin and finish with the symbol @. Even plain files under operating system can contain those strings.
- Adding symbols
The include «SYMBOL» can be easily used in your programs. It makes available a great number of symbols.
- Filling up an empty date field quickly
Strike the key F4 (or click on matchcode symbol) and press ESCAPE. The current date is automaticly set.
- Setting up module FI/CO without using IMG
Almost all parameters can be set using the transactions ORFA (Asset Accounting), ORFB (Financial Accounting), and ORKS (Cost Center Accounting).
- Deleting cost elements and cost centers
Since they have no postings you can use the transaction KA04 for deleting cost elements and KS04 for deleting cost centers.
- Displaying check object when not authorized
Soon after the lock try to access the transaction SU53. It reports the last objects verified and also the respective values.
- Table analyses between two systems
The contents of a table between two systems can be checked through the transaction OY19.
- Correction and transport system
The transaction SE10 provides the easiest way to manage any request/transport and corrections.
- General command field formats
/n Skip to the next record if you are processing one batch input session /bend Cancel a batch input foreground process /nend Close all R/3 sessions and logoff /nxxxx Call the transaction xxxx in the same session /o Generate a session list /oxxxx Call the transaction xxxx in an additional session /i Delete the current session /h Turn the debug mode on /$tab Reset all buffers (for System Administrators) /$sync Synchronize instances buffers (for System Administrators)
- Report command field formats
%pri Print the current report %pc Download the current report %sc Call the find function p+ Go to the next page p- Go to the previous page p++ Go to the last page p-- Go to the first page
- Helpful reports
RSCLTCOP Copy tables across clients RSAVGL00 Table adjustment across clients RSINCL00 Extended program list RSBDCSUB Release batch-input sessions automaticly RSTXSCRP Transport SAPscript files across systems RSORAREL Get the Oracle Release RGUGBR00 Substitution/Validation utility RSPARAM Display all instance parameters RSUSR003 Check the passwords of users SAP* and DDIC in all clients RSUSR006 List users last login
- Meaning of info structures' first letter
A Pricing B Output determination C Account determination D Material determination E Rebates F Index G Listing and Exclusion H Batch determination I Profile determination S Statistics X Statistics extra
- Unconditional mode when importing or exporting a request/transport
Run the command R3trans -u under user «SysID»adm.
- Reapplying hot packages
If you accidently applied hot packages out of sequence for instance. Use the transaction SM31 to modify table PAT03. You have to choose the desired patch and click on delete entry.
- Main return codes of tp program
0 Successfully done 4 Warnings occurred 8 Errors occurred 12 Fatal errors occurred 16 Internal errors occurred
- Scheduling of system maintenance jobs
RSBTCDEL Clean the old background job records RSDBCREO Clean batch input session log RSPO0041 Removing old spooling objects RSSNAPDL Clean the old ABAP error dumps
- List of most used SAP extensions and their components
CUST1 MENUS000+C01 Customer option in the Office menu CUST2 MENUS000+C02 Customer option in the Logistics menu CUST3 MENUS000+C03 Customer option in the Accounting menu CUST4 MENUS000+C04 Customer option in the Human Resources menu CUST5 MENUS000+C05 Customer option in the Information Systems menu CUST6 MENUS000+C06 Customer option in the Tools menu CUST7 MENUS000+C07 Customer option in the System menu ZXUSRU01 Exit_saplsusf_001 At login time SAPMF02D Exit_sapmf02d_001 When saving customer master data SAPMF02K Exit_sapmf02k_001 When saving vendor master data M61X0001 Exit_saplm61c_001 When processing MRP planning M61X0001 Exit_sapmm61x_001 When processing MRP planning FYTX0001 Exit_saplv61a_001 Modifications in pricing procedures MBCF0002 Exit_sapmm07m_001 Checks for materials documents SDVFX002 Exit_saplv60b_002 Link between SD and FI documents M06B0003 Exit_sapmm06b_001 When saving MM documents
- Before going live
It is highly advisable to increase the next extend´s size of some tables and their indexes even before initial loadings
FI BKPF, BSEG, BSIS, BSAD, BSAK, BSID and BSIK CO COEJ, COEP, COKS, COSS and T811* AM ANL* MM MKPF, MSEG and BSIM SD VBAP, VBAK, VBEP, VBPA, LIKP, LIPS, VBRK, VBRP, VBKD, VBUK, VBUP and VBSS PP RESB and MDTB Accross module ATAB, TST03, TSP01, MCSI, KNVP, ACCTIT, COEP, APQD, RFBLG, CDCLS, SDBAD and from S000 to S999
- Locking the whole system
Using the command tp locksys «SysID» only the user SAP* will be allowed to login. The command tp unlocksys «SysID» cancels the lock.
- Connection between SAP R/3 and operating system
The command sapevt can be used to trigger an event from the operation system. Thus, a job previously defined within R/3 will be released.
- SQL code help
Run the command oerr ora «error number» under user ora«SysID».
- Oracle import and export explanations
Run the command imp help=yes under user ora«SysID». This format can also be used with exp, impst, and expst.
|Note:||Research based on version 3.0f under Unix, Oracle data base and Windows.|
Of course it does not guarantee a successful implementation. It is a great deal of summed up aid, though.
- Team integration has to be enhanced
- Set high standards of performance for implementation team
- IT teams and users have to work closely during the implementation
- New ways of thinking and acting must not be discarded
- Do not underestimate the user training needs
- Project management should be on the critical list
- The nearest SAP branch should be your partner
- Consultants are not always the key to succeed
- Consultants are a good source of knowledge. On the other hand, letting them make configuration changes the transfer of knowledge will be harmed
- Foreign consultants usually do not know country-specific details
- Deepening your basis knowledge is always useful
- Avoid changing standard R/3 objects as much as possible
- Always follow the SAP rules to give names to your own objects
- Establish SAP connection as soon as possible
- Exchange information with other companies
- Focus on interfaces with non-R/3 applications
- Plan the whole environment carefully (servers, network, protocols, etc.)
- Development and production environment should be totally independent
Some special features allow you wide modifications without changing standard SAP R/3 objects. Those techniques are not as widespread as they should be. In fact they are powerful tools.
- Field exit
After entering a value in a field, it can be checked through a field exit. The system makes the field value available to be checked and changed in an ABAP/4 function.
- User exit
Points previously set in the system that let you evaluate data. The fields available are also previously defined by SAP. All fields value available can be checked in an ABAP/4 program.
It allows solid data entry regarding special rules. According to previous rules, the system can evaluate an entry and a message can appear on the user's terminal if a check statement is not met. A validation step contains prerequisite statement and check statement. Both of them are defined using Boolean Logic or calling an ABAP/4 form.
Fields contents can be changed using substitution. When data are being entered, the data can be substituted by another value regarding rules previously defined. A substitution step contains prerequisite statement, substitution value and substitution exit. All of them are defined using Boolean Logic or calling an ABAP/4 form.
Values or ranges of values are specified under a set name. Sets are easier to create and maintain instead of using tables. They give you more flexibility when maintaining your system.
- Key words
It allows changes on field description according to data element. The short key word used on most screen to identify the corresponding field contents can be changed too.
- Requirements & formulas
ABAP/4 forms that can be used to handle pricing procedures, rounding rules, copy and data transport Sales activities.
|Note:||In spite of flexibility, you should think at least twice before applying any enhancement.|
|Generally speaking, validation and substitution are available on Asset Management, Controlling, Financial Accounting, and General ledger.|
- System gets stuck
It happens mostly when archive area is overloaded. Run the program brarchive with deletion option to release disk space.
- Short dump
Not always the problem is technical. Try to create all SAPoffice users through transaction SO32 (create all SAPoffice users) and review your application data carefully.
- Field exits are completely ignored
Make sure your SAP profile parameter contains the option abap/fieldexit = yes.
- Transaction SE16 (table contents) does not work properly
Make usage of the menu option to regenerate the display program. You can also try changing key words according to field names. Choose Option -> Parameters users.
- Rollback segments are too small
Before increasing up the rollback segment size you should verify your programs. Very often the problem belongs to them.
- Files for rollback segments are already enormous
Check the rollback segments configuration. It has to match the allocated area on tablespaces. Changes have to be done using Oracle tools.
- Extended help under windows does not link correctly
Check the file sapdoccd.ini under your presentation server. It must be present in the main windows directory and should assign to help files directory.
- Release procedure with classification does not work
As a matter of fact you are not the only one to notice it. It hardly works. Before using release strategy you should apply all notes on OSS. Pray might be useful too.
- Transport area is overloaded
The command tp clearold «SysID» cleans up the transport area according to parameters previously set on the plain file TPPARAM.
- Instance does not establish communication
Shutdown the whole system and check the Interprocess Communication Facilities. Any references should be found. Either the command IPCS (UNIX) or showipc «INSTANCE NUMBER» (SAP) show all message queue, semaphore set and shared memory identifier. Before trying again you have to remove them using the command IPCRM (UNIX) or cleanipc «INSTANCE NUMBER» (SAP).
|Note:||Research based on version 3.0f under Unix, Oracle data base and Windows.|
Simple changes can rise your system security. Usage of SAProuter is a good choice when correctly implemented. Login through SAP LogonPad (from version 3.0f onwards) improve the access control. SAP profile parameters shall also contain:
- Rdisp/gui_auto_logout = 1800
The user connection is closed after 30 minutes without usage.
- Login/fails_to_session_end = 3
After 3 wrong password the connection is automaticly closed.
- Login/fails_to_users_lock = 5
After 5 wrong password the user is locked.
- Login/min_password_lng = 6
Password length at least 6 characters.
- Login/password_expiration_time = 90
Password expires after 3 months.
|Note:||I do not have to waste my time telling you to change all default passwords.|
|Make sure to have the master user SAP* in all clients otherwise anyone can log into your system. See Tips & Tricks.|
Indeed these powerful ABAP/4 functions are very interesting and can bring some advantages. Improve your home development easily. They belong to standard objects and should never be changed.
Trigger an event from ABAP/4 program.
Fetch job log executions filling the structure TBTC5.
Fetch values from a set filling the structure RGSB4.
Create a dialog box in which you make a question whether the user wishes to perform a processing step with loss of data.
Create a dialog box in which you make a question whether the user wishes to perform the step.
Create a dialog box in which you inform the user about a specific decision point during an action.
Create a dialog box in which you make a question whether the user wishes to perform a processing step with a particular object.
Create a dialog box in which you require the user between the two processing alternatives, or to cancel the action.
Create a dialog box in which you inform the user about a specific decision point via a diagnosis text.
Create a dialog box in which you display a two-line message.
Fetch information from the current instance filling the structure FRCSI.
Send messages from ABAP/4 programs to SAPoffice. The structure SOLI may contain the message.
Hang the current application from 1 to 5 seconds.
Submit a remote report.
Set progress indicator on the left lower corner of the current window.
Format terms of payment according to base line date and payment terms.
Browse printer spool numbers according to user informed.
Fetch printer spool according to the spool number informed.
List of all users filling the structure SOUD3.
Return the amount in words filling the structure SPELL.
Gather information from the current system including upgrade activities. It completes fields from the structure KKS03.
Gather information of all instances filling the structure MSXXLIST.
List of logged users filling the structure UINFO.
Information about the current user. It completes fields from the structure KKS03.
List of work processes filling the structure WPINFO.
Transfer files from the frontend to the application server.
Transfer files from the application server to the frontend.
Download files at the frontend in excel format.
Execute an external program on the presentation server.
Delete file at the frontend.
Get the label from a frontend device.
Create a dialog box in which you display an one-line message.
|Note:||These functions have been used and have worked as well as they were supposed to do.|
SAP R/3 Glossary
Information Technology has many key words and SAP R/3 has introduced many others. In order to understand even better this field you should keep in mind those terms.
- ALE (Application Link Enabling)
It provides integration for separate R/3 systems, keeping full interaction. This makes possible distributed enterprise applications.
- Application server
The application server is used to run the business application programs in the R/3 client/server concept. The application modules are loaded from the data base server to the application server as required. Thus the application server requires only storage capacity to accommodate UNIX, Swapping and the SAP runtime environment.
- Batch Input
A technique to input data safely. It ensures application data integrity for background interfaces. It pretends to be someone typing. See also direct input.
- CATT (Computer Aided Test Tool)
It allows you to combine and automate sequences of repeatable transactions in test procedures. CATT reduces the number of manual tests, and forces you to test systematically, defining input values and expected test results.
- CCMS (Computer Center Management System)
It allows you to monitor, control and configure your R/3 system. This toolset lets you analyze and distribute client workloads and report on resource consumption for system components.
- Central System
In an R/3 central system, both application and data base software are run on one computer.
In commercial, organizational and technical terms, a self-contained unit in an R/3 system with separate master records and its owns set of tables.
- Client/Server System
Client/server systems are structured modularly, with components working in a sender/receiver relationship. Software components can also be used in a client/server relationship.
- Communication Server
It provides the connection between local area and wide area networks and may be either a router, a bridge or a gateway. In R/3 installations, the communication server must support the TCP/IP protocol over wide area networks.
- Company code
The smallest organizational unit for which a complete self-contained set of accounts can be drawn up for purposes of external reporting. This involves recording all relevant transactions and generating all supporting documents for legally-required financial statements, such as balance sheets and profit and loss statements.
- Computer type
The R/3 system supports various computer types of SAP's platform partners, such as Bull, DEC, IBM and HP. The suitability of a particular computer type depends on sufficient CPU performance.
- CPI-C (Common Programming Interface-Communications)
Common Programming Interface of Communication has been introduced by IBM as a high-level interface to SNA/LU6-2. CPI-C has become the subject of the X/Open stardarlization and is used by SAP to facilitate program-to-program communication between R/3 and external system. SAP offers CPI-C libraries based on TCP/IP.
It contains all the objects that a developer has changed or created. It also controls customizing that has been maintained.
A system to help SAP employees to give comprehensive support to their clients.
- Data base server
The data base server stores the SAP application programs and data in the R/3 client/server concept. It also handles the SAP update program and batch jobs.
- Direct Input
A recent technique to input data safely. It ensures application data integrity for background interfaces. See also batch input.
The system R/3 agent that identifies the type of task (on-line, update, batch, etc.) and sends the job to an idle work process.
It is a service that entails having your R/3 installation regularly inspected by SAP employees, in other to ensure high system availability and high data throughput at all time.
It is a LAN architecture using bus topology. The transmission speed is 10 MBit/s.
- FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interchange)
It is a local high-speed network with ring topology based on light wave conductors. The transmission speed is 100 MBit/s.
- Field status
Indicator that specifies whether a field can take an entry in the entry screen or if it must be filled.
It is a means of controlling access through a public network to a private network.
- FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
It is the most commonly used file transmission protocol of the TCP/IP protocol family.
- GUI (Graphic User Interface)
A graphical interface used by SAP environment as part of the three tiers. It is normally called user frontend.
- IDES (International Demonstration and Education System)
It is a model of an international firm. It is a separate demonstration and education system for speeding up the pilot process.
- IMG (Implementation Management Guide)
It is a hierarchical structure that reflects the R/3 component hierarchy and contains every configuration activity. Released from version 3.0 onwards.
It means application server and each one has its own set of work processes.
- IDoc (Intermediate Document)
An IDoc is a data container for data exchange between SAP systems or between an SAP system and an external system.
- ITS (Internet Transaction Server)
It links the R/3 application server with one or more Web servers, thus enabling the R/3 to communicate with the Internet.
It means a standard core previously configured. A set of default parameters delivered with the system.
- LAN (Local Area Network)
It is a network foa a tightly limited area with high level data transmission performance. Common LANs include Ethernet, Token Ring and FDDI. These LANs support different transport protocols, such as TCP/IP and IPX.
A tool for finding specific record. It is made up of search terms. It is used to find possible entries for an input field.
- Number range
A range of numbers that are laid down per file for the assignment of document numbers. It can be internal (carried out automatically by the system) or external (carried out manually by the user).
It is a technique introduced by Microsoft to incorporate objects of one application into another.
- OSS (Online Service System)
SAP's Online Service System offers fast and effective help for R/3 System problems. It is also the basic element of communications between customers, partners, and SAP.
It contains all the objects that a developer has changed but the originals of the objects are located in another system.
A way to implement communication between application programs via Abap/4 function call.
When a work process locks a resource, it sets a semaphore. Another work process that also wants to access it must then wait.
A set of three letters or number that identify a system. Some sets are not allowed because they are used by SAP. They are informed when the system is installed.
It is the most widely used transport protocol for open systems. R/3 clients and servers communicate using TCP/IP.
It provides terminal access to hosts using TCP/IP protocol. It is a well-known command among Systems Administrators.
- Token Ring
It is a LAN architecture with ring topology. The transmission speed is 4 MBit/s or 16 MBit/s. This involves a 'free token' which circles the loop picking up transmissions. The receiver station places a confirmation bit into the busy token. As soon as the busy token reaches the sender station again, it is converted back to a free token and sent on to the next station.
It is a request to transport objects from the software development environment, identified as the source system, to the specified target system.
- WAN (Wide Area Networks)
They are normally operated either by the telephone company or by private companies that offer leased lines, switched lines or packet lines.
- Work process
Work processes perform the bulk of the processing carried out by SAP systems. They perform dialog steps in user transactions and carry out updates, lock management, printing services, and so on.
The ABAP/4 Workbench, a graphical programming environment, is used to create application programs. The programming tools are accessed using buttons, dialogs and windows.
It consists of time and logical sequence of work items, which are processed by human agents or mechanical processing units.
It is a standardized network access protocol for the packet switching network. The maximum transmission speed is 64 KBit/s.
Many people say it cannot be considered only as a software but a way of doing business. Actually it forces the company to review its business processes. As a result business processes can be changed or not. If so, it means new designs based on built-in best pratices.
Graphical models help users understand the application software, showing how data flow through business areas and how they interact with each other. A good example of how SAP R/3 is usually implemented can be found at the simple flow chart presented below.
Each business process has a segment previously set. It is known as business application areas and make you understand better the whole system. They also provide you the level of SAP R/3 covering.
Even if you do not look forward to implementing a module, sometimes you have to set it partially. It happens commonly due to the integrated nature of the system. Functionalities have been put together establishing modules. The official division has the following configuration.
· Document Management System
· Classification System
· CAD Integration
· SAP Office
· Plant Data Collection
· General Task Functions
· Documentation Tools
· Distribution (ALE)
· Eletronic Data Interchange
· Message Control
· Global Settings
· General Ledger Accounting
· Accounts Receivable
· Accounts Payable
· Legal Consolidation
· Consolidation Preparation
· Asset Accounting
· Special Purpose Ledger
· Eletronic Bank Statment
· Financial Information System
· Cash Management
· Cash Budget Management and Financial Budgeting
· Commitment Accounting
· Controlling General
· Overhead Cost Controlling
· Product Cost Controlling
· Profitability Analysis
· Investment Programs
· Investment Orders
· Investment Projects
· Profit Center Accounting
· Executive Information System
· Managing Material Master Data
· Business Partners
· Environment Data
· Variant Configuration
· Engineering Change Management
· Logistics Information System
|SD||Sales & Distribution|
· Schedule Agreement Processing
· Availability Check and Requirements
· Pricing and Conditions
· Foreign Trade
· Sales Support
· Credit Management
· Information and Analysis
· Consumption-Based Planning
· Purchasing Guide
· Inventory Management
· Valuation and Account Assignment
· Invoice Verification
· Material Evaluation
· Warehouse Management
· Vendor Evaluation
· Material Ledger
· Quality Plannning
· Quality Inspection
· Quality Certificates
· Quality Notifications
· Equipment and Technical Objects
· Preventive Maintenance
· Maintenance Order Management
· Maintenance History
· Bills of Material
· Demand Management
· Sales & Operations planning
· Master Plannning
· Capacity Planning
· Material Requirements Planning
· Production Orders
· Repetitive Manufacturing
· Work Centers
· Task Management
· Reference Guide
|PD||Personnel Planning and Development|
· Organizational Management
· Training and Event Management
· Personnel Development
· Workforce Planning
· Personnel Cost Planning
· Room Reservations Planning
· Structural Graphics
|PA||Personnel Administration and Payroll Accounting|
· Personnel Administration
· Time Management
· Incentive Wages
· Travel Expenses
· Payroll: Country Specifications
· Africa (South Africa)
· Asian Pacific Area (Australia, China, Japan, Singapore)
· Europe (Austria, Belgium, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Germany, Denmark, Spain, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Russia, Sweden, United Kingdom)
· North America (Canada, Mexico, USA)
· South America (Argentina, Brazil)
· Workflow Management
· Frontend Services
· Report Tree
· Computer Center Management System
· ABAP/4 Dictionary
· ABAP/4 Workbench
· ABAP/4 Query
· SAP Graphics
· SAP Communication
· Style & Layout set Maintenance
· Modification and Enhancements
· Authorization Administration
· Computer Aided Test Tool
· Application Data Archiving and Reorganization
Thanks to Ricardo Fernandes de Miranda for submitting this document.